Skip to main content

Paul Craig

Faculty bibliography for Prof. Craig

Publications

Paul Craig

Visiting Professor of English Law


Books

EU ADMINISTRATIVE LAW, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

THE EVOLUTION OF EU LAW (edited with Grainne de Burca). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

EU LAW: TEXT, CASES AND MATERIALS, 4th ed. (with Grainne de Burca). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

EU ADMINISTRATIVE LAW. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

THE EXECUTIVE AND PUBLIC LAW: POWER AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE (edited with Adam Tomkins). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW, 5th Ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2003.

LAW AND ADMINISTRATION IN EUROPE: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF CAROL HARLOW (Paul Craig and Richard Rawlings, Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press 2003.

EU LAW: TEXT, CASES AND MATERIALS, 3rd ed. (with Grainne de Burca). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Articles

Constitutional Principle, the Rule of Law and Political Reality: The European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, 82 MODERN LAW REVIEW 319 (2019). [SSRN]

Foreword (Public Law)2019 OXFORD UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE LAW JOURNAL 11 (2019). [HeinOnline]

The Future of EU Law as a Subject in British Universities (with Catherine Barnard), 53 LAW TEACHER 136 (2019). 

Taxonomy and Public Law: A Response, 2019 PUBLIC LAW 281 (2019). [SSRN]

The EU, Democracy and Institutional Structure: Past, Present and Future2018 no. 4 REVISTA ROMANA DE DREPT EUROPEAN 23 (2018). [HeinOnline]

Brexit, A Drama: The Interregnum, 36 YEARBOOK OF EUROPEAN LAW 3 (2017). [SSRN]

Comparative Administrative Law and Political Structure, 37 OXFORD JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES 946 (2017).

The Eurogroup, Power and Accountability, 23 EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL 234 (2017). [SSRN]

Judicial Power, the Judicial Power Project and the UK, 36 UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND LAW JOURNAL 355 (2017). [HeinOnline] [SSRN]

Transnational Constitution-Making: The Contribution of the Venice Commission on Law and Democracy, 2 UC IRVINE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL, TRANSNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 57 (2017). [HeinOnline] [SSRN]

Brexit: A Drama in Six Acts, 41 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW (Aug. 2016). [SSRN]

Gauweiler and the Legality of Outright Monetary Transactions (with Menelaos Markasis), 41 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 1 (2016). [SSRN]

The Financial Crisis, the European Union Institutional Order, and Constitutional Responsibility, 22 INDIANA JOURNAL OF GLOBAL LEGAL STUDIES 243 (2015). [HeinOnline]

Judicial Review and Anxious Scrutiny: Foundations, Evolution and Application, 2015 PUBLIC LAW 60 (2015). [SSRN]

Constitutionalizing Constitutional Law: HS2, 2014 PUBLIC LAW 373 (2014). [SSRN]

Pringle and the Nature of Legal Reasoning, 21 MAASTRICHT JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN AND COMPARATIVE LAW 205 (2014). [HeinOnline] [SSRN]

Use of EU Institutions Outside the EU Legal Framework: Foundations, Procedure and Substance2014 no. 4 REVISTA ROMANA DE DREPT EUROPEAN 105 (2014). [HeinOnline]

EU Accession to the ECHR: Competence, Procedure and Substance, 36 FORDHAM INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 1114 (2013). [HeinOnline] [SSRN]

A General Law on Administrative Procedure, Legislative Competence and Judicial Competence 19 EUROPEAN PUBLIC LAW 503 (2013). [SSRN]

The Nature of Reasonableness Review, 66 CURRENT LEGAL PROBLEMS 107 (2013). [SSRN]

Pringle and Use of EU Institutions Outside the EU Legal Framework: Foundations, Procedure and Substance 9 EUROPEAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW REVIEW 263 (2013). [SSRN

Pringle: Legal Reasoning, Text, Purpose and Teleology, 20 MAASTRICHT JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN AND COMPARATIVE LAW 3 (2013). [HeinOnline] [SSRN]

Review, Risk, Legality and Damages, 4 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RISK REGULATION 399 (2013). [HeinOnline]

Subsidiarity: A Political and Legal Analysis, 50 JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES 72 (2012). [SSRN]

Stability, Coordination and Governance Treaty: Principle, Politics and Pragmatism 37 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 231 (2012). [SSRN]

Two-Speed, Multi-Speed and Europe's Future: A Review of Jean-Claude Piris on the Future of Europe 37 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 800 (2012). [SSRN]

Delegated Acts, Implementing Acts and the New Comitology 36 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 671 (2011). [SSRN]

The ECJ and Ultra Vires Action: A Conceptual Analysis, 48 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW 395 (2011). [HeinOnline]

The European Union Act 2011: Locks, Limits and Legality, 48 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW 1915 (2011). [HeinOnline]

Political Constitutionalism and the Judicial Role: A Response 9 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 112 (2011). [HeinOnline] [SSRN]

Competence and Member State Autonomy: Causality, Consequence and Legitimacy, 2010 no. 6 REVISTA ROMANA DE DREPT EUROPEAN 51 (2010). (In Italian) [HeinOnline

Perspectives on Process: Common Law, Statutory and Political 2010 PUBLIC LAW 275 (2010). [SSRN]

Proportionality, Rationality and Review, 2010 NEW ZEALAND LAW REVIEW 265 (2010). [SSRN] [HeinOnline]

Delegation of Legislative Power, 46 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW 1265 (2009). [HeinOnline]

The Legal Effect of Directives: Policy, Rules and Exceptions, 34 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 349 (2009). [SSRN]

The Treaty of Lisbon: Process, Architecture and Substance, 33 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 137 (2008).

Equality, Review and the Crown's Power to Disburse Funds, 19 EUROPEAN REVIEW OF PUBLIC LAW 845 (2007).

European Governance: Executive and Administrative Power under the New Constitutional Settlement, 3 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 407 (2005). [HeinOnline]

Institutional Structure: A Delicate Balance1 EUROPEAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW REVIEW 52 (2005). [HeinOnline]

Theory, ‘Pure Theory’ and Values in Public Law, 3 PUBLIC LAW 440 (2005).

The Common Law, Shared Power and Judicial Review, 24 OXFORD JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES 237 (2004).  [SSRN]

Competence: Clarity, Conferral, Containment and Consideration, 29 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 323 (2004).

Constitutional Process and Reform in the EU: Nice, Laeken, the Convention and the IGC, 10 EUROPEAN PUBLIC LAW 653 (2004). [HeinOnline]

The Constitutional Treaty: Legislative and Executive Power in the Emerging Constitutional Order, EUI WORKING PAPER: LAW NO. 2004/7. San Domenico, Italy: European University Institute, 2004. [SSRN]

Judicial Review, Appeal and Factual Error, 2 PUBLIC LAW 788 (2004).

Legislative Intent and Legislative Supremacy: A Reply to Professor Allan, 24 OXFORD JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES 585 (2004). [SSRN]

A New Framework for EU Administration: The Financial Regulation 200268 LAW & CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS 107 (2004). [HeinOnline]

The Community Political Order, 10 INDIANA JOURNAL OF GLOBAL LEGAL STUDIES 79 (2003). [HeinOnline]

Constitutional Foundations, the Rule of Law and Supremacy, PUBLIC LAW 92 (2003).

The Constitutionalisation of Community Administration, 28 EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW 840 (2003).

The Human Rights Act, Article 6 and Procedural Rights, PUBLIC LAW 753 (2003).

Standing, Rights and the Structure of Legal Argument, 9 EUROPEAN PUBLIC LAW 493 (2003).

What Constitution Does Europe Need? The House that Giscard Built: Constitutional Rooms with a View, THE FEDERAL TRUST ONLINE PAPER SERIES, 26/03 (Aug. 2003). [SSRN]

Contracting Out, the Human Rights Act and the Scope of Judicial Review, 118 LAW QUARTERLY REVIEW 551 (2002).

Constitutional Analysis, Constitutional Principle and Judicial Review (with others), PUBLIC LAW 763 (2001).

Constitutions, Constitutionalism, and the European Union, 7 EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL 125 (2001). [SSRN]

Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Review, 54 CURRENT LEGAL PROBLEMS 147 (2001).

The Courts, the Human Rights Act and Judicial Review, 117 LAW QUARTERLY REVIEW 589 (2001).

The Jurisdiction of the Community Courts Reconsidered36 TEXAS INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 555 (2001). [HeinOnline]

The Fall and Renewal of the Commission: Accountability, Contract and Administrative Organisation, 6 EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL 98 (June 2000). [SSRN]

Legality, Standing and Substantive Review in Community Law14 OXFORD JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES 507 (1994). [HeinOnline]

Ultra Vires and the Foundations of Judicial Review57 CAMBRIDGE LAW JOURNAL 63 (1994). [HeinOnline]

Book Chapters

Democracy [SSRN] in CAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (R. Masterman and R. Schutze, Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

EMU Reform (with Menelaos Markakis) [SSRN] in THE EU LAW OF ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION (F. Amtenbrink and C. Herrmann (Eds.). London: Oxford University Press, Forthcoming 2019.

Engagement and Disengagement with International Institutions: The UK Perspective [SSRN] in OXFORD HANDBOOK OF COMPARATIVE FOREIGN RELATIONS LAW (Curtis A. Bradley, Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

The EU, Democracy and Institutional Structure: Past, Present and Future [SSRN] in THE FUTURE OF EUROPE: POLITICAL AND LEGAL INTEGRATION BEYOND BREXIT (A. Bakardijieva-Engelbrekt and X. Groussot, Eds.). London: Hart Publishing, 2019.

General Principles of Law: Treaty, Historical and Normative Foundations [SSRN] in RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EU LAW (Katja Ziegler, et.al., Eds.). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Forthcoming 2019.

Legality, Five Views of the Cathedral [SSRN] in OXFORD HANDBOOK OF COMPARATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (Peter Cane, et.al., Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, Forthcoming 2019.

Treaty Amendment, the Draft Constitution and European Integration  [SSRN] in THE RISE AND FALL OF THE EUROPEAN CONSTITUTION (N.W. Barber, et.al., Eds.). London: Hart Publishing, 2019.

Miller, EU Law and the UK [SSRN] in THE UK CONSTITUTION AFTER MILLER: BREXIT AND BEYOND (Elliott, Mark, et.al., Eds.). London: Hart Publishing, 2018.

The Euro Area, Its Regulation and Impact on Non-Euro Member States, (with Menelaos Markasis) [SSRN] in RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON THE LAW OF EU'S INTERNAL MARKET (P. Koutrakos and J. Snell, Eds.). Oxford: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017.

The Process: Brexit and the Anatomy of Article 50 in THE LAW AND POLITICS OF BREXIT (F. Fabbrini, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. [SSRN]

Proportionality and Judicial Review: A UK Historical Perspective, [SSRN] in GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW: EUROPEAN AND COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES (S. Vogenauer and S. Weatherill, Eds.). Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2017.

Comitology, Rulemaking and the Lisbon Settlement: Tensions and Strains, [SSRN] in RULEMAKING BY THE COMMISSION: THE NEW SYSTEM (C-F. Bergstrom and D. Ritleng (Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Responsibility, Voice and Exit: Britain Alone? [SSRN] in BRITAIN ALONE!: THE IMPLICATIONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNITED KINGDOM EXIT FROM THE EU (P.J. Birkinshaw and A. Biondi, Eds.). Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer, 2016.

Accountability in THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW (D. Chalmers and A. Amull, Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Britain in the European Union in THE CHANGING CONSTITUTION, 8th Ed. (Jeffrey Jowell, et.al., Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

The Financial Crisis, the EU Institutional Order and Constitutional Responsibility [SSRN] in WHAT FORM OF GOVERNMENT FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE EUROZONE? (F. Fabbrini, E. Ballini and H. Somsen, Eds.). Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2015.

Article 41 in THE EU CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS: A COMMENTARY (Steve Peers, et.al., Eds.). Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2014.

Economic Governance and the Euro Crisis: Constitutional Architecture and Constitutional Implications, [SSRN] in THE CONSTITUTIONALIZATION OF EUROPEAN BUDGETARY CONSTRAINTS (Maurice Adams, et. al., Eds.). Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2014.

Accountability and Judicial Review in the UK and the EU: Central Precepts, [SSRN] in ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY CONSTITUTION (N. Bamforth and P. Leyland (Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

EU Administrative Law and Tradition, in ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IN EUROPE: BETWEEN COMMON PRINCIPLES AND NATIONAL TRADITIONS (M. Ruffert, Ed.). Groningen, Netherlands: Europa Law Publishing, 2013.

The United Kingdom, the European Union and Sovereignty [SSRN] in SOVEREIGNTY AND THE LAW: DOMESTIC, EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES (R. Rawlings, et. al., Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Administrative Law in the Anglo-American Tradition in THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (B.G. Peters and J. Pierre, Eds.). London: Sage, 2012.

Britain in the European Union in THE CHANGING CONSTITUTION, 7th Ed. (Jeffrey Jowell and Dawn Oliver, Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Competence and Member State Autonomy: Causality, Consequence and Legitimacy, [SSRN] in THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE AND THE AUTONOMY OF MEMBER STATES (Hans-Wolfgang Micklitz and Bruno de Witte, Eds.). Oxford: Hart, 2011.

Institutions, Power, and Institutional Balance, [SSRN] in THE EVOLUTION OF EU LAW (edited with Grainne de Burca). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Integration, Democracy, and Legitimacy, [SSRN] in THE EVOLUTION OF EU LAW (edited with Grainne de Burca). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Introduction in THE EVOLUTION OF EU LAW (edited with Grainne de Burca). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Legitimacy in Administrative Law: European Union, in LEGITIMACY IN EUROPEAN ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: REFORM AND RECONSTRUCTION (M. Ruggert, Ed.). Groningen, Netherlands: Europa Law Publishing, 2011.

The President of the European Council, in EUROPE'S CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES IN THE LIGHT OF THE RECENT CASE LAW OF NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS: LISBON AND BEYOND (J.M. Beneyto and I. Pernice (Eds.). Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2011.

Shared Administration and Networks: Global and EU Perspectives, [SSRN] in VALUES IN GLOBAL ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (G. Anthony, et al., Eds.). Oxford: Hart, 2011.

The Classics of EU Law Revisited: CILFIT and Foto-Frost, in THE PAST AND FUTURE OF EU LAW (M.P. Maduro and L. Azoulai, Eds.). Oxford: Hart, 2010.

Community Administration, History, Typology and Accountability, [SSRN] in LE NUOVE METE DEL DIRITTO AMMINISTRAZIONE (M. D'Alberti, Ed.). Bologna: Il Mulino, 2010.

Coping with Numbers, Voting, Enhanced Cooperation and Amendment, in EUROPE: THE NEW LEGAL REALISM (H. Koch, et.al., Eds.). Copenhagen: Djøf Publishing, 2010.

Judicial Review and Questions of Law: A Comparative Perspective, [SSRN] in COMPARATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (S. Rose-Ackerman and P. Lindseth, Eds.). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010.

Legal Control of Regulatory Bodies: Principle, Policy and Teleology, [SSRN] in THE EUROPEAN LEGAL ORDER AFTER LISBON (P. Birkinshaw and M. Varney, Eds.). Austin: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2010.

Political Constitutionalism and Judicial Review, [SSRN] in EFFECTIVE JUDICIAL REVIEW: A CORNERSTONE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE (Christopher Forsyth, et. al. Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Sovereignty and the EU: The UK Perspective and Primacy Clauses, in SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION: PARADOXES AND DEVELOPMENT WITHIN EUROPE TODAY (L. Tichy and T. Dumbrovsky, Eds.). Prague: Centre for Comparative Law, Law Faculty of Charles University in Prague, 2010.

Specific Powers of Public Contractors, in COMPARATIVE LAW ON PUBLIC CONTRACTS (R. Noguellou and U. Stelkens, Eds.). Brussels: Bruylant, 2010.

Access to Mechanisms of Administrative Law, in ENGLISH PUBLIC LAW (D. Feldman, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Administrative Law, in THE JUDICIAL HOUSE OF LORDS, 1876-2009 (L. Blom-Cooper, et.al., Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

The Detailed Mandate and the Future Methods of Interpretation of the Treaties, in CECI N'EST PAS UNE CONSTITUTION = CONSTITUTIONALISATION WITHOUT A CONSTITUTION? (I. Pernice and E. Tanchev, Eds.). Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2009.

Executive Accountability and the Contestability of the Executive Domai', in POLITICAL ACCOUNTABILITY AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION (L. Verhey, et.al., Eds.). Groningen, Netherlands: Europa Law Publishing, 2009.

​Fundamental Principles of Administrative Law, in ENGLISH PUBLIC LAW (D. Feldman, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

​Grounds for Judicial Review: Substantive Control over Discretion, in ENGLISH PUBLIC LAW (D. Feldman, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Shared Administration, Disbursement of Community Funds and the Regulatory State, [SSRN] in LEGAL CHALLENGES IN EU ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED ADMINISTRATION (Hofmann, Herwig, Turk, Alexander, Eds.) Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009.

Substance and Procedure in Judicial Review, in TOM BINGHAM AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE LAW, A LIBER AMICORUM (M. Andenas and D. Fairgrieve, Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Fundamental Rights, in MAKING COMMUNITY LAW: THE LEGACY OF ADVOCATE GENERAL JACOBS AT THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE (P. Moser and K. Sawyer, Eds.). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2008.

Multilevel Governance and Accountability in the EU, in MULTILEVEL GOVERNANCE AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM IN THE 21ST CENTURY (P. Pavlopoulos and S. Flogaitis, Eds.). London: European Public Law Organization, 2008.

The Role of the European Parliament under the Lisbon Treaty, in THE LISBON TREATY: EU CONSTITUTIONALISM WITHOUT A CONSTITUTIONAL TREATY? (S. Griller and J. Ziller Eds.). Wien: Springer, 2008.

Introduction (with Adam Tomkins), in THE EXECUTIVE AND PUBLIC LAW: POWER AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE (edited with Adam Tomkins). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

The Locus and Accountability of Executive Power in the European Union, in THE EXECUTIVE AND PUBLIC LAW: POWER AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE (edited with Adam Tomkins). Oxford: Oxford University Press 2006.

Access to Mechanisms of Administrative Law, in ENGLISH PUBLIC LAW (David Feldman, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Britain in the European Union, in THE CHANGING CONSTITUTION, 5th Ed. (Jeffrey Jowell and Dawn Oliver, Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Fundamental Principles of Administrative Law, in ENGLISH PUBLIC LAW (David Feldman, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Grounds for Judicial Review: Substantive Control over Discretion, in ENGLISH PUBLIC LAW (David Feldman, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

The Hierarchy of Norms, in EUROPEAN UNION LAW FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, v. 1 (Takis Tridimas, Ed.). Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2004.

Judicial Review, Intensity and Deference in EU Law, in THE UNITY OF PUBLIC LAW (David Dyzenhaus, Ed.). Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2004.

Administrative Law in the Anglo-American Tradition, in HANDBOOK OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (Guy Peters and Jon Pierre, Eds.). London: SAGE Publications, 2003.

National Courts and Community Law, in GOVERNING EUROPE (Jack Hayward and Anand Menon, Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Theory and Values in Public Law: A Response, in LAW AND ADMINISTRATION IN EUROPE: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF CAROL HARLOW (Paul Craig and Richard Rawlings, Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

The Evolution of the Single Market, in THE LAW OF THE SINGLE EUROPEAN MARKET, UNPACKING THE PREMISES (Catherine Barnard and Joanne Scott, Eds.). Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2002.

Jurisdiction of the Community Courts Reconsidered', in THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE (Grainne de Burca and J.H.H. Weiler, Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Book Reviews

Book Review. Comparative Administrative Law and Political StructureCane, P., Controlling Administrative Power, An Historical Comparison, 37 OXFORD JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES 946 (2017). [SSRN]